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ENAR Shadow Report 2012/13 on racism in Europe: Key findings on racism and discrimination in employment
The European Network Against Racism (ENAR) 2012/13 Shadow Report on racism and discrimination in Europe focuses on employment, and assesses how discrimination affects ethnic and religious minorities as well as migrants in accessing the labour market and in the workplace. The findings are based on data and information from ENAR’s national Shadow Reports from 23 European countries. Five groups are identified as being most vulnerable to discrimination in employment: migrants from non-EU Member States; Roma; Muslims; people of African descent and Black Europeans; and women with a minority or migrant background. Despite the existence of a legal framework, discrimination in employment is still experienced as a widespread phenomenon.
Manifestations of racism and discrimination in employment
- The economic and financial crisis, and the lack of social investment, have worsened the employment gap between migrants, ethnic and religious minorities and the majority population.
- In Finland and Belgium, unemployment rates are three times higher for people born outside the EU than for the native-born population.
- African migrants in Spain are twice as likely to be unemployed as people from the majority population.
- In the Netherlands, Moroccans have the highest unemployment rates.
- A study by the EU Fundamental Rights Agency shows that among eleven Member States, one out of three Roma respondents reported that they were unemployed.
- Discrimination affecting migrants and minorities place them at disadvantage already when they attempt to access the labour market.
- In Hungary, 64% of migrant respondents to a survey admitted having experienced discrimination when looking for a job.
- Migrants in Germany are less likely to find employment than Germans with the same level of education but without a migrant status or background.
- In the United Kingdom, people with foreign sounding names are a third less likely to be shortlisted for jobs than people with white British sounding names.
- In France, applicants who live in socially disadvantaged areas, e.g. poorer suburbs of Paris or Lyon, face discrimination.
- In the Netherlands, 57% of recruitment agencies complied with a request not to introduce Moroccan, Turkish or Surinamese candidates.
- In Spain, a young Muslim woman who finished her university studies in pharmacology with the second best grade could not find a job for three years because she did not want to take off her veil.
- Even once are in a job, migrants and minorities continue to face unequal treatment: lower wages, a lack of career prospects, precarious and difficult working conditions, harassment, abusive dismissal, are just some of the manifestations.
- In Hungary, wages paid to Roma are lower than the Hungarian minimum wage.
- In Austria, people with a Turkish background earn 20% less that their Austrian colleagues without a migrant background.
- In Italy, 34% of foreigners are employed as unskilled workers compared with 8% of the majority population.
- In the Czech Republic, respondents to a survey stated that they had been denied promotion with the explanation “that it is not yet time for a black person to work in a management position”.
- A Polish study on threatening dismissal practices concluded that in many cases migrant workers are forced to work overtime under the threat of dismissal.
- The European Union has adopted laws to combat discrimination in employment which are now part of EU Member States’ national laws, but there remain a number of gaps in implementation and protection mechanisms. These include:
- The difficulty to prove discrimination;
- A lack of trust in the judicial system;
- A lack of awareness of legal provisions;
- The length and cost of proceedings;
- Fear of re-victimisation.
- Labour market indicators (employment and unemployment rates) are not enough to know how many people experience discrimination on the grounds of their racial or ethnic origin and religion/belief. EU institutions and Member States should therefor adopt a common framework for the collection and analysis of reliable and comparable disaggregated equality data to fight discrimination in employment.
- EU institutions should develop guidelines for employers to accommodate religious and cultural diversity in the workplace.
- EU institutions and Member States should ensure that labour market regulations respect the “equal status and equal pay for equal work” principle and that all workers (EU Member State nationals, EU migrants and non-EU migrants) enjoy equal treatment.
- Common EU standards on labour inspection should be established, geared towards detecting discrimination on the ground of ethnic origin and religion/belief.
To read the full report, visit www.enar-eu.org/Page_Generale.asp?DocID=15294&langue=EN